These studies have been initiated with the aim of quickly providing essential data for critical clinical decisions for the management of NHS staff, while providing standardised tests for intervention therapies, vaccine development and immune benchmarks for clinical trials.



Patients from the following infection/disease categories (based on WHO clinical management of COVD-19, May 2020):

  • People with severe or critical COVID-19

  • People with moderate COVID-19 disease 

  • People with mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections


  • Conduct detailed functional and biochemical analysis of antigen and epitope specificity to distinguish protective humoral immune responses from immunopathological ones (NB: individuals who progress to severe COVID-19 disease frequently have the highest anti-S and neutralisation responses).

  • Perform cross-sectional cohort analysis of asymptomatic versus severe infections in order to determine the key immune responses that correlate with protection.

  • Create standard assays to determine protection.



  • 10,000 UK health care workers


  • Comprehensively dissect humoral immune responses associated with protection from re-exposure to validate tests.

  • Follow-up for re-exposure data to compare immune responses in confirmed, exposed individuals for evidence of protective immunity when re-exposed to infection.


  • Pseudotype-based microneutralisation assays for multiple human Coronaviruses

  • ELISAs for Coronavirus glycoproteins

  • Direct ELISA working platform from a variety of vaccine studies

  • Cell display FACS of CoV antigens

  • B-cell ELISpots/FACS

  • MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

  • Fc receptor assays, and assays for ADCC, ADCP,  ADCD, and complement-dependent cytotoxicity

  • Analysis on Classical, Alternative & Lectin compliment pathways